Cryptology - XOR

 The Exclusive-OR option (XOR, also known as binary addition) is used heavily in cryptology and sounds much more complicated than it actually is: a function of flipping bits in a systematic, easy fashion.

XOR table
Original Value Key Value Cipher Value
1 1 0
1 0 1
0 1 1
0 0 0

Short version: If two binary values are the same, the output is a 0 otherwise it is a 1.